CST®: Fiber Implant Framework System

Since its introduction FiBER FORCE® has set the standard for reinforcement applications in removable dentistry. From the minds that brought you FiBER FORCE®, CST® (Cable Stayed Technology) represents the next major evolution in fiber design and application: an ingeniously simple concept for fabricating an implant supported fiber structure for fixed/hybrid dentures, popularized by solutions like the All-on-4™ implant system.

  • Innovative compressible hybrid fiber design for optimized physical strength
  • Improved compatibility with the acrylics and composites that are used to complete the final appliances resulting in outstanding resistance to stress forces
  • Affordable cost per arch makes fixed implant solutions more accessible
  • Leverages known engineering concepts and the beneficial physical properties of Fiber Reinforced Composite (FRC)
  • Simple and fast technique allows fabrication of a framework in 30 minutes
  • Requires no CAD/CAM technologies or systems - accessible to all dental professionals



Inspired by Engineering

The use of Fiber Reinforced Composites (FRC) has been become commonplace and examples are all around us: airplanes, cars, boats, bicycles to name just a few. FRC are incorporated into manufacturing processes as metal replacements due to their low weight, high fracture resistance and high fatigue resistance.

CST® was inspired by two known engineering principles and concepts. The first, which inspired the CST® name, is cable stayed bridges. All modern long span bridges across the world are now built using cables extended from central support pillars (think of them as implant cylinders) to support the bridge decks. The second inspiration is reinforced concrete design, which applies the concept of flowing concrete around a specifically designed grid or structure. In either example, the materials used work together dynamically to create strong and resistant structures.



Inspired by Physical Compatibility

Acrylics have less than ideal physical compatibility with all metals. Metals are rigid - acrylics are flexible. The two materials respond to stress forces in different ways which can create very small but progressively damaging cracks in the acrylics. To make matters worse the two materials do not bond together chemically, and the interface between the two materials is prone to separation, leading to challenges like tooth debonding and acrylic fracture. The dilemma, until now, has been that acrylic only fixed dentures are not strong enough in many cases to resist long term intra-oral stress forces.

CST® fibers, composed of e-glass and UDMA resin, have elastic properties that are much closer to acrylic than metal. The key term is “visco elastic”. Visco elastic materials will deform under stress loads but return to their original shape or form as long as those stress loads don't surpass certain levels. The key benefit of visco elasticity is that it reduces peak stress loads by stretching out the load “period”. Like cable stayed bridges and reinforced concrete which themselves take advantage of visco elasticity, the CST® concept results in strong and durable prostheses in part due to the high degree of compatibility between the CST® fibers and the acrylics or composites flowed or “processed” around the CST® framework. The strength of the finished prostheses is also impacted by the chemical compatibility between the CST® fibers and the acrylic - they chemically bond.



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Inspired by Physical Properties

CST® hybrid compressible fibers combine the strength and handling advantages of previous generation fibers. CST® fibers have very high tensile strength on one hand yet are very flexible on the other. While this seems like a paradox, it's not. All FRC have this particular characteristic which actually makes them ideal for the highly repetitive stresses seen intraorally, because high tensile strength and high elasticity combine to equal high fatigue resistance.

The addition of glass fibers has consistently been shown to increase the fracture resistance of the dental acrylics. In one study, the fracture resistance of denture acrylic increased by 280% with the addition of FiBER FORCE® mesh fibers at a volume of 25% by weight.[1] CST® frameworks processed in acrylic have been shown to resist forces of 405 daN (880 lb.).[1] On a distal extension of 11mm a fracture resistance of 92 daN (202 lb.)[1] has been demonstrated - three times or 200% more than an unreinforced distal extension. As maximum generated posterior intraoral forces - as opposed to functional forces, which are much lower - are generally accepted to be in the region of 50 daN (110 lb.)[2], CST® structures have demonstrated sufficient physical strength to stand up to even the most extreme intra-oral forces.

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Inspired by Simplicity and Affordability

The CST® technique makes the fabrication process both fast and simple. A CST® framework can be made in approximately 30 minutes and requires no casting, scanning, or milling - making it accessible to any dental technician with a light curing unit. All the usual protocols for fixed- hybrid dentures are followed which means familiar routines and processes are maintained.



Not only are CST® frameworks strong and easy to fabricate, they're affordable - making a fixed denture solution - most often desired by edentulous patients - more accessible to more people.




[1] - Internal testing
[2] - J. F. BATES, G. D. STAFFORD and A. HARRISON. Masticatory function-a review of the literature: (II) Speed of movement of the mandible, rate of chewing and forces developed in chewing. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, October 1975, Volume 2, Issue 4, 349-361.

All-on-4 is a trademark of Nobel Biocare Inc.
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